Mental characteristics of infants following healthy full-term babies from the first days of life record the view, watching the subject, clearly responding to auditory stimulus.
Many of them are very meaningful expression. The same reaction to his surroundings can be observed preterm with a gestation of 35-37 weeks. In children with a lower gestational age, maturity and mental status of the arrested and the degree of lag is proportional to gestational age. This gap is especially pronounced in children with gestational age of 26-28 weeks. Therefore, in the monitoring of very premature children is very important to evaluate the evolution of mental development of the newborn. As the first criteria for dynamic assessment of mental development of newborns can distinguish three features: head turning to a sound stimulus, fixation of gaze tracking of a moving object and emotional expression.
Auditory concentration indicates only that the child hears. Turn head and eyes to a sound stimulus indicates a greater degree of mental development. This phenomenon in children with gestation 27-28 weeks and weight at birth 800 g starts appearing at the age of 1 month, although we watched a child with a birth weight 820 g and a gestational age of 27 weeks, which turn head to a sound stimulus was detected at the 6th day of life.
Fixations and tracking of the object (brightly colored, sounding toy) this group begins to appear to 2 months. This is an important feature in the assessment of the child, but record and monitor the subject and children with down syndrome. Therefore, by itself, fixations, still about what does not speak, but its absence in infants with a birth weight of 750-800 g and above the age of 2 months should be seen as a bad sign.
Great value in a predictive sense is an emotional reaction in the face of a child. When examining a child in an upright position, face towards you, you sense from his side of the optic and "meaningful" contact. This indicator of development in infants with a birth weight of 750-800 g and gestation 27-28 weeks of age 2.5-3.5 months of prospective evidence of the mental development of the newborn, although not affect the locomotor prognosis.
At intelligent expression already at this age it is possible to judge the presence of a child a kind of intelligence, so the baby is unlikely to be stupid, though can be distracted, restless and have problems in contact with other children.
It is important in the hospital to assess mental development of the newborn and to refer the matter to the clinic. Gross mental retardation, identified in full-term newborn at birth or in the first weeks of life and is due to hypoxic, traumatic, infectious or genetic damage will remain so in the future. It is not corrected, and this needs to be informed parents of the patient.
In preterm neonates with gestation 35-36 weeks and gross developmental delays can also be diagnosed at birth or in the first week of life.
Newborns with gestational age 26-27 weeks and the birth weight of 750-800 g report on their mental development in terms of exclusion of poor prognosis can be expected to give at the age of 3-4 months. If you have any doubts, it is advisable to detain the child in hospital for another 1-2 months.
In conclusion, we note that the indicative assessment of the mental development of newborn babies, including very premature in terms of their further psychomotor development is only on set of neurological status and neurosonographic data and audiological research, but also depends on the age of the child at the moment. The smaller the child's weight and gestational age, the more distant his prospects.